Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1
xxxv + 743
Johns Hopkins University Press
Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Groves (2001) treats xanthocephalus as a junior synonym of nigritus. Anthony Rylands (pers. comm., 24 January 2021) notes that xanthocephalus has a rust-colored chest and no black on the head, while Spix (1823) mentions Wied's xanthosternos as having a yellow chest and black 'points' on the head, and nigritus does not have a rust-colored chest. Rylands also notes that Spix places xanthocephalus in the forests of Rio de Janeiro, while the southern limit to xanthosternos is the Rio Jequitinhonha on the border of Bahia and Minas Gerais, and nigritus occurs south of the Rio Doce in Rio de Janeiro. As the putative gegraphic distribution of xanthocephalus corresponds to nigritus, but the appearance does not, Rylands views xanthocephalus as a nomen dubium
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